Postal services must be maintained. Besieged forces at Mafeking overprinted and then produced their own stamps; German soldiers trapped on the Kurland Peninsular by the Soviets overprinted their own. Those at home may raise extra funds by buying “War Tax” stamps & surcharges on French Cameroun could charge extra to the Spitfire Fund whilst Rommel’s desert warriors could buy their own special Palm Tree stamps. Occupation forces could seize and overprint local stamps and liberated peoples could in turn seize the occupier’s stamps and obliterate a dictators image with handstamps carved by the local postmaster. War stretches human ingenuity and makes for unusual stamps and fascinating postal history.