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Yugoslavia


Before 1939


FIRST STAMPS See individual countries.
FIRST STAMPS ISSUED For individual provinces 1918-19.
For unified country 16 January 1921.
For stamps used in Serbia see Serbia.


CURRENCY

1918, 100 filler (or heller) = 1 krone.
1919, (Slovenia) 100 vinar = 1 krona.
1920, 100 para = 1 dinar.



Formed in 1917 as a new country from the former territories of Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Slovenia and Croatia. The last three had been part of Austria-Hungary. Pact of Corfu in July 1917 had agreed the new state in principle, and the break-up of the Austrian Empire made the implementation possible.


On the establishment of the kingdom of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, overprinted or definitive stamps were issued for each of the individual provinces: Bosnia-Herzegovina in November 1918, Croatia on 18 November 1918 and Slovenia on 3 January 1919. These continued until the issue of the first combined stamps in 1921.


Stamps in Slovenia included a special issue for the plebiscite to be held in Carinthia, the province of Bavaria which subsequently became part of Austria, and the funds so raised were used to enable the Carinthians to travel to vote. Although Yugoslavia was ruled by a king it remained a loose association at first and only became a kingdom in 1929.


1939-45

In 1941 Yugoslavia was put under pressure by Germany to join the Axis powers. On 24 March the government agreed, but on 26 March General Simovic overthrew the government. On 6 April Germany invaded Yugoslavia and quickly overran the country. The government surrendered on 17 April but a guerrilla campaign began immediately against the occupying powers. On occupation, the Germans and Italians divided the country into its original constituent parts. Stamps were issued for each sector including Croatia, which became an autonomous state on 10 April 1941.


Croatia


FIRST STAMPS ISSUED April 1941.


CURRENCY

1941, 100 paras = 1 dinar.
also 100 banicas = 1 kuna.



Croatia comprised Bosnia-Herzegovina, the Dalmatian coast and all territory south of the river Drava. Further territory was added in 1943 when the Italians surrendered. (see also after Yugoslavia)


Slovenia


FIRST STAMPS ISSUED April 1941.


CURRENCY

1941, as Yugoslavia.
1944, as Italy.



Initially occupied by Italy, the stamps of Yugoslavia were issued with an Italian overprint. In May 1941 further overprints were produced when Slovenia became the Italian province of Lubiana. When Italy surrendered in 1943, stamps of Italy were overprinted for use in the territory which was then administered by the Germans. (see also after Yugoslavia).


Fiume and Kupa


FIRST STAMPS ISSUED 16 May 1941.


CURRENCY

1941, 100 pares = 1 dinar.



After initial overprints on Yugoslav stamps, Italian stamps were brought into use in this area after the territory was annexed by Italy. Re-occupied by Yugoslavia in 1945 and then administered as part of Venezia Giulia (q.v.). (See also Fiume under Italy).


Dalmatia


FIRST STAMPS ISSUED 9 October 1943.


CURRENCY

1919, 100 centesimi = 1 corona.



Areas in Dalmatia which had been under the control of Italy were occupied by Germany in September 1943. Issues of Italy were overprinted for use in this area, largely around Zara. (See also Dalmatia under Italy).


Brac


FIRST STAMPS ISSUED May 1944.


CURRENCY

100 banicas = 1 kuna.



Island south of Split on the Dalmatian coast which issued one set while occupied by the Germans. It was a charity issue and similar issues were prepared for the islands of Hvar and Korcula but were never issued.


Gulf of Kotor


FIRST STAMPS ISSUED 10 February 1944.


CURRENCY

1944, Italian or German currency.



Part of Dalmatian coast first occupied by the Italians and then by the Germans after Italians surrendered in 1943. Since 1945 has been part of Yugoslavia, administered from Montenegro. Macedonia FIRST STAMPS ISSUED 28 October 1944. Further occupation issues were produced for Serbia and Montenegro, and are listed under those countries. In addition to occupation issues referred to above, other parts of Yugoslavia were controlled by other German allies. Hungary acquired all territory north of the river Drava, including the major town of Novi Sad. Albania was given a large area, including Uleini on the coast and Pec, Dakovica, Pristina, Prizren and Kicevo. This part was officially annexed on 12 September 1942. Bulgaria gained Yugoslav Macedonia, which included the towns of Skopie, Pirot and Bitola, which had been part of Serbia. All these territories were returned to Yugoslavia after the war.


1945 to date

The guerrillas and partisans who had fought the Germans during their occupation of the country were themselves split by loyalties and political affiliation. Marshal Tito seized power in April 1945 and formed the territory into a democratic federation. Because of the general shortage of stamps, regional overprints were produced in Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, Montenegro, Serbia and Slovenia. The first general issue, still an overprint, was released on 14 December 1944, but regular issues did not appear until February 1945.


Genaral Tito died in 1980 and the political balance between the federal presidencies was unable to prevent the secession of some of the constituent parts of the Republic. Independence was declared by Slovenia on 25 June 1991 and fighting broke out in Croatia. Croatia itself had declared its independence on 30 May and the war between Croat and Yugoslav troops continued until January 1992. Macedonia had also left the Federation on 18 September 1991.


In 1992, Kosovo, a province in the south of Yugoslavia with a largely Albanian population, in defiance of the Serb authorities, held parliamentary and presidential elections. These were won by the Democratic League of Kosovo amd its Muslim leader Ibrahim Rugova. Clashes between the ethnic Albanians and the Serb Police followed in early 1998 and led to an aerial bombardment by the NATO Allies in 1999. Kosovo's position in respect of the Yugoslav Federation in general and Serbia in particular remains unclear in the long-term but currently (end of 1999), a NATO and Russian force is in a peace-keeping role with FPOs of the various contingents in place.


Croatia


STAMPS REISSUED 1 April 1991 (Obligatory Tax Stamps).


CURRENCY

April 1991, 100 paras = 1 (Yugoslav) Dinat.
23 December 1991, 100 paras = 1 (Croatian) Dinar.
1 June 1994, 100 Lipa = 1 Kruna.



The first free and democratic elections were held in April and May 1990. As a result, Croatia declared its independence from Yugoslavia on 30 May 1991. The country was admitted to membership of the United Nations in May 1992.


Macedonia


STAMPS REISSUED 30 May 1991 (Obligatory Tax Stamps).


CURRENCY

30 December 1991, 100 paras = 1 Dinar.
8 May 1992, 100 deni = 1 Denar.



The former Yugoslav republic of Macedonia was declared independent after a referendum on 8 September 1991. Macedonia was used as base for the operations against Serb forces in Kosovo by the NATO troops which also employed their own FPOs during 1999.


Slovenia


STAMPS REISSUED 26 June 1991.


CURRENCY

June 1991, 100 paras = 1 Dinar.
October 1991, 100 stotinas = 1 Tolar.



The former Republic of Slovenia was declared independent after a referendum on 25 June 1991.



Yugoslavia 1918-22
Click map for larger view



Break-up of Yugoslavia (1991-1997)
Click map for larger view


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