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Lebanon



FIRST STAMPS Turkish from 1883.

FIRST STAMPS ISSUED 1 January 1924.


CURRENCY

1924, 100 centimes = 1 piastre.



Emirate under Turkish rule from 1516 to 1842. After a civil war between Muslims and Christians, the Powers intervened in 1861 to insist that a Christian governor be appointed by the Sultan. A period of French military administration (1918) was followed by a French mandate in 1920, initially as part of Syria, after 29 September 1923 as Greater Lebanon (Grand Liban). Republic was proclaimed on 23 May 1926. Vichy regime was overthrown by British and Free French troops in June 1941. The country gradually assumed independence.


In 1975, fighting broke out in Beirut between Maronite, Sunni and Shia factions, the latter being supported by Palestinian guerrillas based in the country. In 1976 The Arab Deterrent Force, compsed mainly of Syrian troops, imposed a cease fire, but fighting resumed and continued until the end of the Civil War in 1990.


In 1978, Israeli troops invaded Southern Lebanon, but withdrew shortly afterwards. These positions were taken over by the United Nations Interim Force, largely manned by US Marines. In 1982, following further incursions, the Israelis penetrated almost as far as Beirut, but they withdrew again in 1985, but a buffer zone controlled by the Israeli backed South Lebanon Army, a Christian Militia, was established along the Israeli-Lebanon border.


A general level of disturbance and civil strife has continued through 1993-99 and an agreement was finally reached in April 1996 to confine hostilities to Southern Lebanon. The situation remains unstable though presidential, Parliamentary and Local Government elections have been held more recently.


French PO in Beirut


Particular provisional issued 17 January 1905.


CURRENCY

1859, as France.



Opened c. 1840, closed 1914. Used stamps of France c. 1858?-85 (oblit.3706, small figures; 5082, large figures). 1885-1914, see French POs in Turkish Empire.


British PO in Beirut


Particular provisional issued 2 July 1906.


CURRENCY

As British Levant.



Opened c. 1873, closed 1914. Used stamps of Britain (oblit.G06) and British Levant.


Russian PO in Beirut

An agency of ROPiT was opened in1857, closed in 1914. Used stamps of Russia 1863-5 (oblit. 783). Used stamps of ROPiT 1865-8. 1868-1914, see Russian POs in Turkish Empire. Particular stamps were issued in 1879 and 1909-10.


For the Austrian PO and German PO in Beirut see Austrian and German POs in the Turkish Empire (they issued no particular stamps).



Middle East after 1916
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