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Denmark



CURRENCY

1857, 96 rigsbank skilling = 1 rigsdaler

1875, 100 ore = 1 krone.



Before 1850

Smallest of the Scandinavian countries in modern times, Denmark holds a strategic position at the entrance to the Baltic Sea. Having exercised control over most of the British Isles in the 10th and 11th centuries, the exploring and raiding tendencies of the Danes were thereafter restricted. They fought several unprofitable European wars in the Middle Ages and from the 17th century the internal problems of the country became acute. From the 15th century Denmark, Sweden and Norway were linked under one sovereign until 1523, when Sweden separated from the other two. Denmark and Norway were a single kingdom until 1814, when Norway was annexed by Sweden.


A royal mail service was established in 1624. Postal markings began to appear in the 17th century. There were many different types of marking, including some which incorporated distances in miles used to calculate the charges.


In the early 18th century, under Frederick IV, Denmark occupied Schleswig-Holstein, Touringen and Stralsund on the south coast of the Baltic. This was extended to include most of Pomerania. Denmark held aloof from the later wars of the 18th century and formed the 'Armed Neutrality' in 1780 with Russia and Sweden. This lasted for one year only, and was designed as a confederation against Britain's claim to have the right to board ships at sea. The Armed Neutrality was re-formed in December 1800 against the British maritime system and breached the blockade of Napoleon's Europe. War broke out and the Danish fleet was destroyed by Admirals Parker and Nelson in 1801. Further wars led to the surrender of the Danish fleet in 1807, and in 1814, under the Treaty of Kiel, Pomerania and Ruger were gained by Denmark but were ceded to Prussia in 1815, in return for Lauenberg, a duchy in north Germany. At the same time Norway was ceded to Sweden.


In 1848 problems occurred over Schleswig-Holstein, with an uprising supported by the Prussians. War ensued, but an uncertain peace was agreed in 1850.


1850 to date


FIRST STAMPS ISSUED 1 April 1851.



First Danish stamps were printed in square format. The introduction adhesives led to an expansion of the postal service; new values were required and a different design was released in 1854. The stamps were cancelled with numeral cancellations indicate the town of origin.


The problems of Schleswig-Holstein (q.v.) continued during the 1850s, largely encouraged by Prussia In 1864, with Austria as ally, Prussia invaded the twin duchies and after short war both Schleswig and Holstein were annexed by Prussia.


In World War I Denmark remained neutral, but after the war the northern part of Schleswig voted to return to Denmark.


In World War II Denmark was invaded by Germany in April 1940 an was occupied until 1945. During the German occupation existing Danish stamps continued to be used and 11 special overprints were produced.


After the collapse of Germany, if Danish government quickly established control and normal postal services resumed. Denmark joined NATO in 1949 and the EEC in 1973.


Faroe Island


FIRST STAMPS Danish from 1870.

FIRST STAMPS ISSUED 30 January 1975.


CURRENCY

1975, as Denmark.



Group of islands between Scotland and Denmark which became part of the Danish kingdom in 1380.


Recognizable by the postmarks, Danish stamps were used until the British occupation in 1940. During 1919 bisected 4 ore value and a 2 ore on 5 ore surcharge were issued during a temporary shortage of the 7 ore stamp.


In May 1940 occupied by British forces following the invasion of Denmark by the Germans. British Field POs were used until 1945 and some special surcharges on Danish stamps also appeared. From 1945 to 1975 Danish stamps were again used in the islands.


In 1948 the islands were given self-government within the Danish kingdom and stamps for the islands were issued in 1975.


Greenland


FIRST STAMPS ISSUED 1905.


CURRENCY

1938, as Denmark.


A Danish colony formed from early missionary stations established in the 18th century. By 1900 the population was 10,000 and, although letters were carried free of charge, parcels were not and special stamps were issued in 1905.


Parcel post stamps continued to be used until 1 December 1938, when the first postage stamps were issued.


During World War II Greenland became a US protectorate while Denmark was occupied by the Germans. Following liberation, one set for Greenland was printed by the American Bank Note Co. but it was quickly replaced by the former definitive issue, when it became available from Denmark.


On 9 June 1953 Greenland became part of the Danish kingdom and has remained so ever since.




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    SOUTH AFRICA - 1952 RARE UNION VARIETY - ½d Landing of Van Riebeeck, vertical strip of 4 with PAPER JOIN, SG 136, never hinged mint, UNRECORDED in Union Handbook. A very late example of a paper join and an important variety.

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    LEEWARD ISLANDS - 1890 5s green & blue, SG 8, fine cds used

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