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Brazil



FIRST STAMPS ISSUED ('bullseyes') 1 August 1843.


CURRENCY

1843, 1000 reis = 1 milreis.
1942, 100 centavos = 1 cruzeiro.



Discovered in 1500 by the Portuguese and became their principal colony. When Napoleon invaded Portugal in 1807, the Portuguese court went into exile in Brazil. Britain's many connections with its oldest ally were moved from Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro, Brazil was declared a kingdom in 1815 and on 7 September 1822 an empire, independent of Portugal. The Federal Republic of the United States of Brazil was proclaimed 15 November 1889, when Pedro II was overthrown. In 1969 the official title reverted simply to Brazil.


Postal History
Before 1798 letters to and from Portugal were carried by favour of travellers or by special messenger aboard official vessels; those arriving in Rio were thrown to claimants from a window of the governor's palace. A royal postal service between Portugal and Brazil was founded by decree of 20 January 1798. Government packets (paquetes) plied on alternate months from Lisbon to Assu and Salinas or to Bahia and Rio de Janeiro. Provision was made for internal communication between provincial capitals. Postal rates were fixed. The Rio P0 was installed in the Plaza 15 de Novembre (and remained in the same building for a century and a half). With the arrival of the Portuguese court in Brazil (1808), a monthly sailing packet service was started between Falmouth and Rio via Madeira, Pernambuco, and Bahia.


Internal services were improved. Paid (FRANCA) marks were introduced c.1829 to mark prepaid letters. Brazil became second only to Britain in issuing adhesive stamps. Urban collection and delivery were started in 1849 (after an abortive attempt in 1845). From Falmouth, steam replaced sail in 1851 when the Royal Mail Steam Packet was given the contract. British PAs were placed at ports of call. After 1860 other connections were made from Rio to Bordeaux (Ligne du Bresil, later Ligne J), Marseille, and Liverpool (Pacific Steam Navigation Co.). French PAs were placed at the ports of call and provided with date-stamps. The Brazilian P0 was subordinate to various ministries until December 1931.


Stamps of France were used at Rio, Bahia and Pernambuco from 1860 (usually oblit. anchor in lozenge of dots).


Stamps of Britain were used at British packet ports in 1866-74:


Bahia (oblit. C81)
Pernambuco (oblit. C82)
Rio de Janeiro (oblit. C83).




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